Use of mathematical modelling to assess the impact of vaccines on antibiotic resistance.
by KE Atkins on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat to the provision of safe and effective health care. To control antibiotic resistance, vaccines have been proposed as an essential intervention, complementing improvements in diagnostic testing, antibiotic stewardship, and drug pipelines. The decision to introduce or amend vaccination programmes is
Genome-wide mutagenesis and multi-drug resistance in American trypanosomes induced by the front-line drug benznidazole.
by MC Campos on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 5-8 million people in Latin America. Although the nitroheterocyclic compound benznidazole has been the front-line drug for several decades, treatment failures are common. Benznidazole is a pro-drug and is bio-activated within the parasite by the mitochondrial
Frequent undetected MRSA ward-based transmission linked to patient sharing between hospitals.
by O Tosas Auguet on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Recent evidence suggests hospital transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is uncommon in UK centers that have implemented sustained infection control programmes. We investigated whether a healthcare-network analysis could shed light on transmission paths currently sustaining MRSA levels in UK hospitals. A
Shuffling of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in successful healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA).
by JA Lindsay on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC22 SCCmecIV is a successful hospital-associated (HA-) MRSA, widespread throughout the world, and now the dominant clone in UK hospitals. We have recently shown that MRSA CC22 is a particularly fit clone, and it rose to dominance in a UK hospital at the same time as it began acquiring an
Large mobile genetic elements carrying resistance genes that do not confer a fitness burden in healthcare-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
by GM Knight on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Healthcare-associated (HA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone CC22 SCCmecIV (EMRSA-15) has recently overtaken CC30/ST36 SCCmecII (EMRSA-16) as the dominant clone in UK hospitals. CC22 SCCmecIV shows greater fitness than CC30 SCCmecII, although both are successful global pathogens. The aim of this study was to test whether
A New Handheld Device for the Detection of Falsified Medicines: Demonstration on Falsified Artemisinin-Based Therapies from the Field.
by BK Wilson on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
: AbstractPoor-quality medicines are a major problem for health-care systems in resource-poor settings as identifying falsified medicines requires a complex laboratory infrastructure such as a Medicines Quality Control Laboratory. We report here an evaluation of a low-cost, handheld near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) device by analyzing a library
Addressing the unknowns of antimicrobial resistance: quantifying and mapping the drivers of burden.
by GM Knight on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The global threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has arisen through a network of complex interacting factors. Many different sources and transmission pathways contribute to the ever-growing burden of AMR in our clinical settings. The lack of data on these mechanisms and the relative importance of different factors causing the emergence and
Methods for estimating the burden of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic literature review protocol.
by NR Naylor on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Estimates of the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are needed to ascertain AMR impact, to evaluate interventions, and to allocate resources efficiently. Recent studies have estimated health, cost, and economic burden relating to AMR, with outcomes of interest ranging from drug-bug resistance impact on mortality in a hospital setting to
What is resistance? Impact of phenotypic versus molecular drug resistance testing on multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis therapy.
by J Heyckendorf on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Rapid and accurate drug-susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for the treatment of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB). We compared the utility of genotypic DST assays with phenotypic DST (pDST) using BACTEC 960 MGIT or Löwenstein-Jensen to construct M/XDR-TB treatment regimens for a cohort of 25 consecutive
Chloroquine/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Gambian Children with Malaria: Transmission to Mosquitoes of Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum.
by RL Hallett on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
OBJECTIVES: In the Gambia, chloroquine (CQ) plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the first-line antimalarial treatment. Plasmodium falciparum parasites carrying mutations associated with resistance to each of these drugs were present in 2001 but did not cause a significant loss of therapeutic efficacy among children receiving the combination
- Single-dose azithromycin to treat latent yaws.
Ornithine uptake and the modulation of drug sensitivity in Trypanosoma brucei.
by JP Macedo on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Trypanosoma brucei, protozoan parasites that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), depend on ornithine uptake and metabolism by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) for survival. Indeed, ODC is the target of the WHO "essential medicine" eflornithine, which is antagonistic to another anti-HAT drug, suramin. Thus, ornithine uptake
Shift in dominant hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) clones over time.
by GM Knight on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The majority of HA-MRSA infections are caused by endogenous infection and by only a small number of clones. The reasons for the success of some clones over others are unknown. We investigated the evolution of an MRSA population from a large, acute-care teaching hospital in London, UK over a 10 year period. MRSA incidence and antibiotic
Randomised controlled trial of two sequential artemisinin-based combination therapy regimens to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria in African children: a protocol to investigate safety, efficacy and adherence.
by HD Schallig on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria relies on artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These highly effective regimens have contributed to reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, artemisinin resistance in Asia and changing parasite susceptibility to ACT in Africa have now been well documented.
Caesarean section wound infections and antibiotic use: a retrospective case-series in a tertiary referral hospital in The Gambia.
by A Aulakh on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Ours is the first published study to examine post-Caesarean section (CS) wound infections in The Gambia. We explored risk factors and clinical management retrospectively at a large referral hospital over a 12-month period. A total of 777 cases were identified and records for 682 (88%) were retrieved. The CS rate was 21.8% and the wound infection
Randomised Trial of Chloroquine/Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Gambian Children with Malaria: Impact against Multidrug-Resistant P. falciparum.
by S Dunyo on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
OBJECTIVES: In the Gambia, the combination of chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has replaced CQ monotherapy for treatment of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. We measured the efficacy of the combination CQ/SP, and the prevalence of parasites carrying alleles associated with resistance to CQ or SP. DESIGN: We conducted a
Metformin reduces airway glucose permeability and hyperglycaemia-induced Staphylococcus aureus load independently of effects on blood glucose.
by JP Garnett on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Diabetes is a risk factor for respiratory infection, and hyperglycaemia is associated with increased glucose in airway surface liquid and risk of Staphylococcus aureus infection. To investigate whether elevation of basolateral/blood glucose concentration promotes airway Staphylococcus aureus growth and whether pretreatment with the antidiabetic
Comparison of the susceptibility of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial agents.
by DA van Schalkwyk on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now a well-recognized pathogen of humans in South-East Asia. Clinical infections appear adequately treated with existing drug regimens, but the evidence base for this practice remains weak. The availability of P. knowlesi cultures adapted to continuous propagation in human erythrocytes enables
Supporting surveillance capacity for antimicrobial resistance: Laboratory capacity strengthening for drug resistant infections in low and middle income countries.
by AC Seale on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threatens our ability to treat common and life threatening infections. Identifying the emergence of AMR requires strengthening of surveillance for AMR, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where the burden of infection is highest and health systems are least able to respond. This
Intrapartum Antibiotic Chemoprophylaxis Policies for the Prevention of Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review.
by K Le Doare on 14 December, 2017 at 2:02
Intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis (IAP) prevents most early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. However, there is no description of how IAP is used around the world. This article is the sixth in a series estimating the burden of GBS disease. Here we aimed to review GBS screening policies and IAP implementation worldwide. We