The epidemiology and transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the community in Singapore: study protocol for a longitudinal household study.
by N Shankar on 22 October, 2017 at 8:08
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common multidrug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings worldwide, but little is known about MRSA transmission outside of acute healthcare settings especially in Asia. We describe the methods for a prospective longitudinal study of MRSA prevalence and transmission.
Preventing emergence of drug resistant tuberculosis in Myanmar's transitioning health system.
by MS Khan on 21 October, 2017 at 5:05
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a particular threat to the populations of resource-limited countries. Although inadequate treatment of TB has been identified as a major underlying cause of drug resistance, essential information to inform changes in health service delivery and policy is missing. We investigate factors that may be
Sharing of carbapenemase-encoding plasmids between Enterobacteriaceae in UK sewage uncovered by MinION sequencing.
by C Ludden on 21 October, 2017 at 3:03
Dissemination of carbapenem resistance among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria is a looming medical emergency. Efficient spread of resistance within and between bacterial species is facilitated by mobile genetic elements. We hypothesized that wastewater contributes to the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), and
A multiple genome analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals specific novel genes and mutations associated with pyrazinamide resistance.
by P Sheen on 17 October, 2017 at 1:01
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and drug resistance compromises the efforts to control this disease. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an important drug used in both first and second line treatment regimes. However, its complete mechanism of action and resistance remains unclear. We genotyped and sequenced the complete genomes of
Effect of maternally-derived anti-protein and anti-capsular IgG antibodies on the rate of acquisition of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in newborns.
by J Ojal on 14 October, 2017 at 9:09
In developing countries, introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has not eliminated circulation of vaccine serotypes. Vaccinating pregnant mothers to increase antibody concentrations in their newborn infants may reduce the acquisition of pneumococcal carriage and subsequent risk of disease. We explored the efficacy of passive immunity,
Do chain pharmacies perform better than independent pharmacies? Evidence from a standardised patient study of the management of childhood diarrhoea and suspected tuberculosis in urban India.
by R Miller on 14 October, 2017 at 2:02
Pharmacies and drug stores are frequently patients' first point of care in many low-income and middle-income countries, but their practice is often poor. Pharmacy retailing in India has traditionally been dominated by local, individually owned shops, but recent years have seen the growth of pharmacy chains. In theory, lower-powered profit
Comparative genomic analysis and in vivo modelling of Streptococcus pneumoniae ST3081 and ST618 isolates reveal key genetic and phenotypic differences contributing to clonal replacement of serotype 1 in The Gambia.
by L Bricio-Moreno on 5 October, 2017 at 1:01
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is one of the leading causes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in West Africa, with ST618 being the dominant cause of IPD in The Gambia. Recently however, a rare example of clonal replacement was observed, where the ST3081 clone of serotype 1 replaced the predominant ST618 clone as the main cause of IPD. In
Comparison of the susceptibility of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial agents.
by DA van Schalkwyk on 3 October, 2017 at 1:01
The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is now a well-recognized pathogen of humans in South-East Asia. Clinical infections appear adequately treated with existing drug regimens, but the evidence base for this practice remains weak. The availability of P. knowlesi cultures adapted to continuous propagation in human erythrocytes enables
Infection, contagion and causality in Colonial Britain: the 1889-90 influenza pandemic and the British Medical Journal.
by AA Kousoulis on 3 October, 2017 at 1:01
The influenza pandemic of 1889 was the first truly global flu outbreak in scope. Characterised by high morbidity and low mortality, it spread rapidly across Europe and the rest of the world along trading routes. It reached mainland Britain in December 1889. The responses of medical practitioners in Britain and the British colonies to the pandemic
Effects of Eimeria tenella infection on chicken caecal microbiome diversity, exploring variation associated with severity of pathology.
by SE Macdonald on 26 September, 2017 at 1:01
Eimeria species cause the intestinal disease coccidiosis, most notably in poultry. While the direct impact of coccidiosis on animal health and welfare is clear, its influence on the enteric microbiota and by-stander effects on chicken health and production remains largely unknown, with the possible exception of Clostridium perfringens (necrotic
Economic costs and health-related quality of life for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients in China.
by Y Zheng on 26 September, 2017 at 1:01
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common illness in China that mainly affects infants and children. The objective of this study is to assess the economic cost and health-related quality of life associated with HFMD in China. A telephone survey of caregivers were conducted in 31 provinces across China. Caregivers of laboratory-confirmed
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in efflux pumps genes in extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Pakistan
by A Kanji on 17 September, 2017 at 7:07
It is challenging to understand mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) due to the large variability in resistance associated genes. Efflux pump genes contribute to drug resistance and thus add to this complexity. Efflux pump gene protein superfamilies have been characterized by genome analysis of drug resistant strains
- "Benznidazole-resistance in Trypanosoma cruzi: Evidence that distinct mechanisms can act in concert'' [Mol. Biochem. Parasit. (2014) 193, 17-19].
Risk factors that may be driving the emergence of drug resistance in tuberculosis patients treated in Yangon, Myanmar.
by MS Khan on 12 September, 2017 at 1:01
The majority of new tuberculosis cases emerging every year occur in low and middle-income countries where public health systems are often characterised by weak infrastructure and inadequate resources. This study investigates healthcare seeking behaviour, knowledge and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Myanmar-which is facing an acute
Whole genome sequencing of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients, farm waste and canals in Thailand.
by C Runcharoen on 12 September, 2017 at 1:01
Tackling multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli requires evidence from One Health studies that capture numerous potential reservoirs in circumscribed geographic areas. We conducted a survey of extended β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from patients, canals and livestock wastewater in eastern Thailand between 2014 and 2015, and
- Pyrazinamide resistance-conferring mutations in pncA and the transmission of multidrug resistant TB in Georgia
- Effect on Neonatal Mortality of Newborn Infection Management at Health Posts When Referral Is Not Possible: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Rural Ethiopia
Evolution of mobile genetic element composition in an epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: temporal changes correlated with frequent loss and gain events.
by D Jamrozy on 7 September, 2017 at 1:01
Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes mediates the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the emergence of new MRSA clones. Most MRSA lineages show an association with specific MGEs and the evolution of MGE composition following clonal expansion has not
Genome-wide profiling of humoral immunity and pathogen genes under selection identifies immune evasion tactics of Chlamydia trachomatis during ocular infection.
by H Pickering on 3 September, 2017 at 8:08
The frequency and duration of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) ocular infections decrease with age, suggesting development of partial immunity. However, there is a lack of clear correlates of immunity to Ct infection in humans. We screened sera from a cohort of Gambian children followed for six-months against a Ct-proteome microarray. At genome sequence
Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage during a PCV trial.
by A Bojang on 31 August, 2017 at 1:01
We conducted an ancillary study among individuals who had participated in a cluster-randomized PCV-7 trial in rural Gambia (some clusters were wholly-vaccinated while in others only young children had been vaccinated), to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage. Two hundred thirty-two children