The growth and strategic functioning of One Health networks: a systematic analysis.
by MS Khan on 14 June, 2018 at 1:01
The recent increase in attention to linkages between human health, animal health, and the state of the environment has resulted in the rapid growth of networks that facilitate collaboration between these sectors. This study ascertained whether duplication of efforts is occurring across networks, which stakeholders are being engaged, and how
- The in vitro and in vivo effect of Carvacrol in preventing Campylobacter infection, colonisation and improve chicken broilers productivity
- Balancing benefits and risks of antibiotic use.
Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.
by S Baker on 24 May, 2018 at 1:01
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge
How effective and cost-effective are behaviour change interventions in improving the prescription and use of antibiotics in low-income and middle-income countries? A protocol for a systematic review.
by N Batura on 22 May, 2018 at 1:01
Antibiotic resistance endangers effective prevention and treatment of infections, and places significant burden on patients, families, communities and healthcare systems. Low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable to antibiotic resistance, owing to high infectious disease burden, and limited resources for treatment.
Inactivation of bpsl1039-1040 ATP-binding cassette transporter reduces intracellular survival in macrophages, biofilm formation and virulence in the murine model of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection.
by P Pinweha on 22 May, 2018 at 1:01
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus, is the causative agent of a tropical infectious disease called melioidosis. Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters import and export a variety of molecules across bacterial cell membranes. At present, their significance in B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is poorly
Potential impact of influenza vaccine roll-out on antibiotic use in Africa.
by GM Knight on 15 May, 2018 at 1:01
Influenza infections result in both inappropriate and appropriate antibiotic prescribing. There is a huge burden of both influenza and infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in Africa. Influenza vaccines have the potential to reduce appropriate antibiotic use, through reduction of secondary bacterial infections, as well as to
Genomic epidemiology of Shigella in the United Kingdom shows transmission of pathogen sublineages and determinants of antimicrobial resistance.
by KS Baker on 15 May, 2018 at 1:01
Shigella are globally important diarrhoeal pathogens that are endemic in low-to-middle income nations and also occur in high income nations, typically in travellers or community-based risk-groups. Shigella phylogenetics reveals population structures that are more reliable than those built with traditional typing methods, and has identified
Use of whole genome sequencing in surveillance of drug resistant tuberculosis.
by R McNerney on 8 May, 2018 at 1:01
The threat of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is of global concern. Current efforts to monitor resistance rely on phenotypic testing where cultured bacteria are exposed to critical concentrations of the drugs. Capacity for such testing is low in TB endemic countries. Drug resistance is caused by mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Author Correction: Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Horizontal antimicrobial resistance transfer drives epidemics of multiple Shigella species.
by KS Baker on 19 April, 2018 at 1:01
Horizontal gene transfer has played a role in developing the global public health crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, the dynamics of AMR transfer through bacterial populations and its direct impact on human disease is poorly elucidated. Here, we study parallel epidemic emergences of multiple Shigella species, a priority AMR
Impact of pyrazinamide resistance on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan.
by J Kuhlin on 19 April, 2018 at 1:01
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of pyrazinamide (PZA) in treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) unless resistance has been confirmed. To investigate the association between PZA susceptibility and MDR-TB treatment outcome among patients treated with a PZA-containing regimen and whether the
High use of private providers for first healthcare seeking by drug-resistant tuberculosis patients: a cross-sectional study in Yangon, Myanmar.
by SD Sidharta on 17 April, 2018 at 1:01
Drug resistance is a growing challenge to tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide, but particularly salient to countries such as Myanmar, where the health system is fragmented across the public and private sector. A recent systematic review has identified a critical lack of evidence for local policymaking, particularly in relation to drivers of
Trials and tribulations: cross-learning from the practices of epidemiologists and economists in the evaluation of public health interventions.
by T Powell-Jackson on 5 April, 2018 at 1:01
The randomized controlled trial is commonly used by both epidemiologists and economists to test the effectiveness of public health interventions. Yet we have noticed differences in practice between the two disciplines. In this article, we propose that there are some underlying differences between the disciplines in the way trials are used, how
Comparison of different treatments for isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.
by F Fregonese on 5 April, 2018 at 1:01
Isoniazid-resistant, rifampicin-susceptible (INH-R) tuberculosis is the most common form of drug resistance, and is associated with failure, relapse, and acquired rifampicin resistance if treated with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The aim of the study was to compare success, mortality, and acquired rifampicin resistance in patients with
- Genetic variation in VAC14 is associated with bacteremia secondary to diverse pathogens in African children.
Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical outcomes in severe microbial keratitis in South India.
by JD Chidambaram on 29 March, 2018 at 1:01
Here, we report risk factors associated with outcome in severe bacterial keratitis (BK), fungal keratitis (FK), and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in India. Prospective observational cohort study conducted in Aravind Eye Hospital, India. Adults presenting with severe microbial keratitis (MK) were enrolled (size ≥3 mm) and followed to
Clonal expansion across the seas as seen through CPLP-TB database: A joint effort in cataloguing Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in Portuguese-speaking countries.
by J Perdigão on 27 March, 2018 at 1:01
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem within the Community of Portuguese Language Speaking Countries (CPLP). Despite the marked variation in TB incidence across its member-states and continued human migratory flux between countries, a considerable gap in the knowledge on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and strain
Duration of exposure to multiple antibiotics is associated with increased risk of VRE bacteraemia: a nested case-control study.
by T Gouliouris on 20 March, 2018 at 2:02
VRE bacteraemia has a high mortality and continues to defy control. Antibiotic risk factors for VRE bacteraemia have not been adequately defined. We aimed to determine the risk factors for VRE bacteraemia focusing on duration of antibiotic exposure. A retrospective matched nested case-control study was conducted amongst hospitalized patients at
Achieving universal health coverage in small island states: could importing health services provide a solution?
by M Suzana on 15 March, 2018 at 2:02
Universal health coverage (UHC) is difficult to achieve in settings short of medicines, health workers and health facilities. These characteristics define the majority of the small island developing states (SIDS), where population size negates the benefits of economies of scale. One option to alleviate this constraint is to import health services,