Single nucleotide polymorphisms in efflux pumps genes in extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Pakistan
by A Kanji on 17 September, 2017 at 7:07
It is challenging to understand mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) due to the large variability in resistance associated genes. Efflux pump genes contribute to drug resistance and thus add to this complexity. Efflux pump gene protein superfamilies have been characterized by genome analysis of drug resistant strains
- "Benznidazole-resistance in Trypanosoma cruzi: Evidence that distinct mechanisms can act in concert'' [Mol. Biochem. Parasit. (2014) 193, 17-19].
Risk factors that may be driving the emergence of drug resistance in tuberculosis patients treated in Yangon, Myanmar.
by MS Khan on 12 September, 2017 at 1:01
The majority of new tuberculosis cases emerging every year occur in low and middle-income countries where public health systems are often characterised by weak infrastructure and inadequate resources. This study investigates healthcare seeking behaviour, knowledge and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Myanmar-which is facing an acute
Whole genome sequencing of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients, farm waste and canals in Thailand.
by C Runcharoen on 12 September, 2017 at 1:01
Tackling multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli requires evidence from One Health studies that capture numerous potential reservoirs in circumscribed geographic areas. We conducted a survey of extended β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from patients, canals and livestock wastewater in eastern Thailand between 2014 and 2015, and
- Pyrazinamide resistance-conferring mutations in pncA and the transmission of multidrug resistant TB in Georgia
- Effect on Neonatal Mortality of Newborn Infection Management at Health Posts When Referral Is Not Possible: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Rural Ethiopia
Evolution of mobile genetic element composition in an epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: temporal changes correlated with frequent loss and gain events.
by D Jamrozy on 7 September, 2017 at 1:01
Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that carry virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes mediates the evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the emergence of new MRSA clones. Most MRSA lineages show an association with specific MGEs and the evolution of MGE composition following clonal expansion has not
Genome-wide profiling of humoral immunity and pathogen genes under selection identifies immune evasion tactics of Chlamydia trachomatis during ocular infection.
by H Pickering on 3 September, 2017 at 8:08
The frequency and duration of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) ocular infections decrease with age, suggesting development of partial immunity. However, there is a lack of clear correlates of immunity to Ct infection in humans. We screened sera from a cohort of Gambian children followed for six-months against a Ct-proteome microarray. At genome sequence
Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage during a PCV trial.
by A Bojang on 31 August, 2017 at 1:01
We conducted an ancillary study among individuals who had participated in a cluster-randomized PCV-7 trial in rural Gambia (some clusters were wholly-vaccinated while in others only young children had been vaccinated), to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage. Two hundred thirty-two children
Discovery and Optimization of 5-Amino-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide Series against Trypanosoma cruzi.
by S Brand on 31 August, 2017 at 1:01
Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most common cause of cardiac-related deaths in endemic regions of Latin America. There is an urgent need for new safer treatments because current standard therapeutic options, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant side effects and are only effective in the acute
Disparate subcellular location of putative sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.
by J Peltier on 27 August, 2017 at 1:01
Clostridium difficile is a gastrointestinal pathogen but how the bacterium colonises this niche is still little understood. Sortase enzymes covalently attach specific bacterial proteins to the peptidoglycan cell wall and are often involved in colonisation by pathogens. Here we show C. difficile proteins CD2537 and CD3392 are functional substrates
Biological factors that impinge on Chagas disease drug development.
by AF Francisco on 26 August, 2017 at 23:11
Chagas disease is caused by infection with the insect-transmitted protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and is the most important parasitic infection in Latin America. The current drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are characterized by limited efficacy and toxic side-effects, and treatment failures are frequently observed. The urgent need for new
Lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine-1-acetohydroxamic acid analogues as trypanocidal and leishmanicidal agents: an extended SAR study.
by G Zoidis on 26 August, 2017 at 18:06
We have previously described a number of lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine (2,6-DKP)-1-acetohydroxamic acids as potent anti-trypanosomal agents. In this report, we extend the SAR analysis in this class of compounds with respect to in vitro growth inhibition of Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites.
- Supporting surveillance capacity for antimicrobial resistance - laboratory capacity strengthening for drug resistant infections in low and middle income countries
- Correction for Cairns et al., "Comparative Genome Analysis and Global Phylogeny of the Toxin Variant Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 017 Reveals the Evolution of Two Independent Sublineages".
Community outbreaks of group A Streptococcus revealed by genome sequencing.
by CE Turner on 22 August, 2017 at 1:01
The frequent occurrence of disease outbreaks in humans caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) is an on-going public health threat. Conventional bacterial typing methods lack the discriminatory power to confidently confirm or refute outbreaks in hospital and community settings. Microbial whole genome sequencing (WGS) provides a potential solution to
Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice.
by O Oshota on 15 August, 2017 at 1:01
Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the
Investigation of correlates of protection against pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis genogroups W and Y in the African meningitis belt.
by LV Cooper on 15 August, 2017 at 1:01
Serum bactericidal antibody titres that correlate with protection against invasive meningococcal disease have been characterised. However, titres that are associated with protection against acquisition of pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis are not known. Sera were obtained from the members of a household in seven countries of the
Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.
by K Leung on 15 August, 2017 at 1:01
The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high
Approach to Fungal Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals: Pneumocystis and Beyond.
by RJ Wang on 15 August, 2017 at 1:01
: Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are